What is ampere’s law? According to this law “The line integral of magnetic field B along a closed path due to current is equal to the product of the permeability of free space and the current enclosed by the closed path”. Mathematically it is expressed as: Where μ0=permeability of free space i=current flowing through the conductor. Proof: Consider a straight ...

Read More »## How to find density with mass and volume?

What is Density? “Mass per unit volume of a material is called density.”Density is an important property of any material.A homogeneous material such as ice or iron has the same density throughout.We use (the Greek letter rho) for density.If a mass m of homogeneous material has volume V ,the density is: Two objects made of the same material have the ...

Read More »## gravitational potential energy formula derivation and examples

Gravitational potential energy definition We know that a particle gains or loses kinetic energy because it interacts with other objects that exert forces on it.During any interaction,the change in a particle’s kinetic energy is equal to the work done on the particle by the forces that act on it. Examples of gravitational potential energy in everyday life In many situations ...

Read More »## Viscosity of fluids and Poiseuille’s law with applications

What is Viscosity? “Viscosity is the internal friction in a fluid.”Viscous forces opposes the motion of one portion of a fluid relative to another.Viscosity is the reason it takes effort to paddle a canoe through calm water,but it is also the reason the paddle works.Viscous effects are important in the flow of fluids in pipes,the flow of blood,the lubrication of ...

Read More »## Work energy theorem derivation:examples and problems

Work kinetic energy theorem Work energy theorem states that:“The net work done by the forces acting on the body is equal to the change in kinetic energy of the body.”Mathematically it is expressed as: Work energy theorem formula Wnet = Kf –Ki = ∆k An unbalanced force applied to a particle will certainly change the particle’s state of motion.Newton’s second law provides ...

Read More »## kepler’s laws of planetary motion definition and equation

What are kepler’s three laws of planetary motion? Using newton’s laws of motion and law of universal gravitation,we can understand and analyze the behavior of all the bodies in the solar system:the orbits of the planets and comets about the sun and of natural and artificial satellites about their planets.We make two assumption that simplify the analysis: We consider the ...

Read More »## Bernoulli equation:Definition,derivation with applications in fluid mechanics

Bernoulli equation fluid mechanics Bernoulli’s equation is defined as:”The sum of pressure,the kinetic and potential energies per unit volume in a steady flow of an in compressible and non viscous fluid remains constant at every point of its path.”Mathematically it is expressed as: Bernoulli’s principle formula P+ ρgh +1/2 ρv2 =constant Bernoulli’s equation,which is a fundamental relation in fluid mechanics,is not a ...

Read More »## Carnot engine and carnot cycle with examples and problems

Carnot Engine Sadi Carnot in 1840 described an ideal engine using only isothermal and adiabatic processes.The carnot engine is free from friction and heat loses. Sadi showed that a heat engine operating in an ideal reversible cycle between two heat reservoirs at different temperatures would be the most efficient. Construction of carnot engine: It consists of following parts: A cylinder ...

Read More »## 3 types of intermolecular forces with examples

What are intermolecular forces? Forces between molecules are of electromagnetic origin.All molecules contain electric charges in motion.These molecules are electrically neutral in the sense that the negative charge of the electron is equal and opposite charge to the positive charge of the nuclei.This does no mean,however that the molecules do not interact electrically.For example when two molecules approach each other ...

Read More »## Simple harmonic motion equations formulas and examples

What is a Simple harmonic motion? Simple harmonic motion is defined as:”When the net force is directly proportional to the displacement from the mean position and is always directed towards mean position.” A body is said to be vibrating if it moves back and forth or to and fro about a point.Another term for vibration is oscillation.A special kind of ...

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