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atomic & nuclear phy

alpha beta and gamma radiation

Discovery of Radioactivity: In the March 1896 Henri Becquerel announced the discovery of radioactivity similar to X-rays.Although rays (X-rays) had been discovered less than four month earlier it was already known that X-rays come from the fluorescence wall of the discharge tube and thus it was thought that fluorescence and phosphorescence might be responsible for them. Becquerel known that Uranium ...

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Radioactive carbon dating

What is dating? Any of several methods for determining the age of archaeological and fossil remains,rocks,etc,by measuring some property of the organic or inorganic matter that changes with time.This property may be dependent on some aspect of nuclear decay,such as the decay of the radiocarbon or the uranium series ,thermo luminescence ,or electron spin resonance.These aspects are studied by radiometric ...

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What is difference between excitation and ionization potentials?

Excitation potential: The potential required to lift an electron from ground state to some higher state is called excitation potential. Ionization potential: The potential required to completely remove an electron from the atom is called ionization potential.Or “The potential required to  eject an electron from ground state to infinity is called ionization potential.

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Natural Radioactivity and its applications

What is Natural-radioactivity? All the elements beyond hydrogen and helium were made in nuclear reactions in the interiors of stars or in explosive supernovas. Both radioactive and stable nuclides are created in these processes. The solar system is composed of nuclides that were formed about 4.5×109 years ago. (How this is determined is discussed later in this section). Most of ...

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Radiation and Radioactive decay

What is radioactive decay? “Radioactive decay  is the process by which the nucleus of an unstable atom loses energy by emitting radiation, including alpha particles, beta particles, gamma rays and conversion electrons.” Most of the nuclides that have been identified are radioactive.That is,they spontaneously emit a particle,transforming themselves in the process into a different nuclide . In this section we discuss the two ...

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Basic Forces Of Nature

Fundamental forces of nature: The man has always desired to comprehend the complexity of nature in terms of as few elementary concepts as possible. Among its quest, in Feynman’s words,has been the one for “wheel within wheels”, the task of Natural Philosophy being to discover the inner most wheels if any such exits. A second quest has concentrated itself with ...

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What is a radioactive isotope

What are the uses of Radioisotopes? Nuclei which do not emit radiations naturally are called stable nuclei. In general, most of the nuclei with atomic number 1 to 82 are stable nuclei. While the elements whose atomic number is greater than 82 are naturally unstable. They emit different types of radiations, all the time, and hence continuously change from one ...

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examples of Nuclear Fusion

Nuclear Fusion: “Such a nuclear reaction in which two light nuclei merge to form a heavy nucleus is called fusion reaction” We known that the energy given out per nucleon per fission of heavy element like that of uranium is 0.9 MeV. It is due to the fact that the binding energy per nucleon of the fission fragments is greater ...

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Nuclear Fission and fusion

Nuclear Reactions: While studying radioactivity,we have seen that an α-particle is emitted from radium-226 and radon-222 is obtained. This nuclear is change is represented by the following equation:                 Such an equation represents a nuclear reaction. Above mentioned nuclear reaction takes place on its own accord. However, it was Rutherford who, first of all, ...

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