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Thermodynamics

Carnot engine and carnot cycle with examples and problems

Carnot Engine Sadi Carnot in 1840 described an ideal engine using only isothermal and adiabatic processes.The carnot engine is free from friction and heat loses. Sadi showed that a heat engine operating in an ideal reversible cycle between two heat reservoirs at different temperatures would be the most efficient. Construction of carnot engine: It consists of following parts: A cylinder ...

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3 types of intermolecular forces with examples

What are intermolecular forces? Forces between molecules are of electromagnetic origin.All molecules contain electric charges in motion.These molecules are electrically neutral in the sense that the negative charge of the electron is equal and opposite charge to the positive charge of the nuclei.This does no mean,however that the molecules do not interact electrically.For example when two  molecules approach each other ...

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Difference between specific heat capacity and heat capacity

Specific Heat Capacity definition Specific heat of a substance is the amount of heat required as raise the temperature of 1 kg mass of that substance through 1 K. Specific heat formula Generally, when a body is heated, its temperature increases. Increase in the temperature of a body is found to be proportional to the amount of heat absorbed by ...

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thermal Expansion:Formula,examples and applications

Thermal expansion definition Most of the substances solids, liquid and gases expand on heating and contract on cooling. Their thermal expansions and contractions are usually small and are not noticeable. However, these expansions and contractions are important in our daily life. The kinetic energy of the molecules of an object depends on its temperature. The molecules of a solid vibrate ...

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First law of thermodynamics:Definition,examples and applications

1st law of thermodynamics definition When heat is added to a system there is an increase in the internal energy due to the rise in temperature,an increase in pressure or change in the state.If at the same time,a substance is allowed to do work on its environment by expansion,the heat Q required will be the heat necessary to change the ...

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Second law of thermodynamics:Statement,examples and applications

Second law of thermodynamics states that heat can flow spontaneously from a hot object to a cold object; heat will not flow spontaneously from a cold object to a hot object. Why we need  2nd law of thermodynamics? The first law of thermodynamics  would not be violated if any of these processes occurred in reverse. To explain this lack of reversibility ...

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Internal energy formula physics and examples

“The sum of all forms of molecular energies (kinetic and potential ) of a substance is termed as its internal energy.”In the study of thermodynamics,usually ideal gas is considered as a working substance. the molecules of an ideal gas are mere mass points which exert no force on one another. so the internal energy of an ideal gas system is ...

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Evaporation and boiling

If you are moping the floor in home you will observe that the wet floor or surface of floor becomes dry very early after a while.We can say that thin layer of water on floor surface has evaporated.Evaporation is the change the change of state of liquid into vapours. Evaporation is different from boiling besides this in both processes evaporation ...

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radiation heat transfer:definition and examples

Radiation heat transfer is the mode of transfer of heat from one place to another in the form of waves called electromagnetic waves.Convection and conduction require the presence of matter as a medium to carry the heat from the hotter to the colder region. But a third type of heat transfer occurs without any medium at all. All life on Earth ...

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convection heat transfer : Definition,Examples and Applications

Radiation of heat Conduction of heat Convection of heat definition “Transfer of heat by actual movement of molecules from hot place to a cold place is known as convection.” Liquids and gases are poor conductors of heat.However,heat is transfer through  fluids(liquids or gases)easily by another method called convection. Why a balloon inflated with hot shown in figure .rise up?a liquid ...

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