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Author Archives: admin

Bernoulli equation derivation with examples and applications

Bernoulli equation definition Bernoulli’s equation is defined as:”The sum of pressure,the kinetic and potential energies per unit volume in a steady flow of an in compressible and non viscous fluid remains constant at every point of its path.”Mathematically it is expressed as: Bernoulli’s principle formula P+ ρgh +1/2 ρv2 =constant Bernoulli’s equation,which is a fundamental relation in fluid mechanics,is not a new ...

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Carnot engine and carnot cycle with examples and problems

Carnot Engine Sadi Carnot in 1840 described an ideal engine using only isothermal and adiabatic processes.The carnot engine is free from friction and heat loses. Sadi showed that a heat engine operating in an ideal reversible cycle between two heat reservoirs at different temperatures would be the most efficient. Construction of carnot engine: It consists of following parts: A cylinder ...

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3 types of intermolecular forces with examples

What are intermolecular forces? Forces between molecules are of electromagnetic origin.All molecules contain electric charges in motion.These molecules are electrically neutral in the sense that the negative charge of the electron is equal and opposite charge to the positive charge of the nuclei.This does no mean,however that the molecules do not interact electrically.For example when two  molecules approach each other ...

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Operational Amplifier (op-amp):types ,applications,modes & parameters

Early operational amplifiers (op-amps) were used primarily to perform mathematical operations such as addition, subtraction, integration, and differentiation—thus the term operational. These early devices were constructed with vacuum tubes and worked with high voltages. Today’s op-amps are linear integrated circuits (IC s) that  use relatively low dc supply voltages and are reliable and inexpensive. The standard operational amplifier (op-amp) symbol is shown in Figure. It has ...

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Mosfet:types ,n & p channel mosfet switch

What is Mosfet? The Mosfet (metal oxide semiconductor field-effect transistor) is another category of field-effect transistor. The MOSFET, different from the JFET, has no pn junction structure ; instead, the gate of the MOSFET is insulated from the channel by a silicon dioxide (SiO2) layer. The two basic types of MOSFETs are enhancement (E) and depletion (D). Of the two types, the enhancement MOSFET is more ...

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Electric field intensity and electric field lines

“The electric field is a region around a charge in which it exerts electrostatic force on another charges.” According to coulomb’s law ,if a unit positive charge q0 (call it a test charge) is brought near a charge q (call a field charge) placed in space,the charge q0 will experience a force.The value of this force depends upon the distance between ...

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Bipolar junction transistor(BJT):Applications & characteristics

What is transistor? A transistor is a semiconductor device used to amplify or switch electronic signals and electrical power.Or A transistor is a device that regulates current or voltage flow and acts as a switch or gate for electronic signals. Transistors consist of three layers of a semiconductor material, each capable of carrying a current. Bipolar Junction Transistor the basic ...

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Wheatstone bridge circuit with formula and applications

The Wheatstone bridge circuit is widely used to precisely measure resistance. Also, the bridge is used in conjunction with transducers to measure physical quantities such as strain,temperature , and pressure. Transducers are devices that sense a change in a physical parameter and convert that change into an electrical quantity such as a change in resistance. For example, a strain gauge exhibits ...

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Continuity equation derivation in fluid mechanics with applications

General Concept of Fluid Flow One way of describing the motion of a fluid is to divide the fluid into infinitesimal volume elements,which we may call fluid particles,and to follow the motion of each particle. If we knew the forces acting on each fluid particle,we could then solve for the coordinates and velocities of each particle as functions of the ...

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Stokes law terminal velocity formula

Terminal Velocity definition physics “When a magnitude of the drag force becomes equal to the weight,the acting force acting on the droplet is zero. Then the droplet will fall with constant speed called terminal velocity.” Before we going to discuss terminal velocity,we will first shortly explain viscosity and Stokes law. What is viscosity? “The fractional effect between different layers of ...

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