Most larger power distribution systems are AC.The power is transmitted from power stations at much higher voltage to minimize the power loss.At the end of the line where the consumer is located,the voltage level is reduced to a safe value for domestic use.The crucial factor is that it is much easier to increase and decrease AC voltage than DC,so AC ...

Read More »## Hall effect and its applications in semiconductors

What is the Hall effect? “An effect when occurring when a current carrying conductor is placed in a magnetic field and orientated so that the field is at right angles to the direction of the current.”An electric field is produced in the conductor at right angles to both the current and the magnetic field.The field produced is related to the ...

Read More »## Inductance of a solenoid and toroid derivation and examples

What is solenoid? Solenoid is defined as:”A long tightly wound cylindrical conducting wire is called solenoid.” Inductance of a solenoid Consider a solenoid having n turns per unit length.When current passes through the solenoid ,magnetic field is produced inside the solenoid which is directed along the axis of solenoid.The magnetic field in space outside the solenoid is so weak that ...

Read More »## Ampere’s circuital Law in differential form with Applications

What is ampere’s law? According to this law “The line integral of magnetic field B along a closed path due to current is equal to the product of the permeability of free space and the current enclosed by the closed path”. Mathematically it is expressed as: Where μ0=permeability of free space i=current flowing through the conductor. Proof: Consider a straight ...

Read More »## Electric field intensity and electric field lines with properties

What is electric field? “The electric field is a region around a charge in which it exerts electrostatic force on another charges.” According to coulomb’s law ,if a unit positive charge q0 (call it a test charge) is brought near a charge q (call a field charge) placed in space,the charge q0 will experience a force.The value of this force depends ...

Read More »## Kirchhoff’s voltage law and current law with examples and applications

What is Kirchhoff’s Voltage Law? Kirchhoff’s voltage law is a fundamental circuit law that states that the algebraic sum of all the voltages around a closed path is zero or, in other words,the sum of the voltage drops equals the total source voltage. Kirchhoff’s loop rule In an electric circuit, the voltages across the resistors(voltage drops) always have polarities opposite ...

Read More »## Faraday’s law of electromagnetic induction formula & applications

Lenz’s law of electromagnetic induction What is faraday’s law of electromagnetic induction? Faraday’s law of induction was discovered through experiments carried out by Micheal Faraday in England In 1831 and by Joseph Henry in the United States at about the same time. *Even through Faraday published his results first, which gives him priority of discovery, the SI unit of inductance ...

Read More »## Lenz’s Law of electromagnetic induction examples with animation

Faraday’s law of electromagnetic induction What is Lenz’s Law of electromagnetic induction? Lenz’s law states that:”The direction of induced current is always so as to oppose the change which causes the current.” A mathematical expression of Faraday’s law of electromagnetic induction was derived as: ε = – N ΔΦ/Δt The minus sign in the expression is very important.It has to do ...

Read More »## Different types of electromagnetic radiation spectrum with examples

What is Electromagnetic Spectrum? The word spectrum comes from a Latin word meaning “form” or “appearance”. Other familiar words from the same root include “spectacle” and “species.” Newton introduced word to describe the rainbow-like image that resulted when a beam of sunlight passed through a glass prism. Today we speak of the electromagnetic spectrum to indicate the many different kinds ...

Read More »## Wheatstone bridge circuit with formula and applications

What is wheatstone Bridge? The Wheatstone bridge circuit is widely used to precisely measure resistance. Also, the bridge is used in conjunction with transducers to measure physical quantities such as strain,temperature , and pressure. Transducers are devices that sense a change in a physical parameter and convert that change into an electrical quantity such as a change in resistance. For example, ...

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