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Impedance and reactance

Circuits with capacitors and inductors are more complicated than the resistive circuits we talked about earlier ,in that their behavior depends on frequency:A “voltage divider ” containing a capacitor or inductor will have a frequency dependent division ratio.In addition ,circuits containing these components (known collectively as reactive components),”corrupt” input waveforms such as square waves,as we just saw. However,both capacitors and ...

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Differential Operational Amplifier circuit

What is  Operational Amplifiers: Early operational amplifiers (op-amps) were used primarily to perform mathematical operations such as addition, subtraction, integration, and differentiation—thus the term operational. These early devices were constructed with vacuum tubes and worked with high voltages. Today’s op-amps are linear integrated circuits (IC s) that  use relatively low dc supply voltages and are reliable and inexpensive. The standard operational amplifier (op-amp) symbol ...

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How Mosfet transistor works

What is Mosfet? The Mosfet (metal oxide semiconductor field-effect transistor) is another category of field-effect transistor. The MOSFET, different from the JFET, has no pn junction structure ; instead, the gate of the MOSFET is insulated from the channel by a silicon dioxide (SiO2) layer. The two basic types of MOSFETs are enhancement (E) and depletion (D). Of the two types, the enhancement MOSFET is more ...

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npn and pnp Bipolar junction Transistor

What is transistor? A transistor is a semiconductor device used to amplify or switch electronic signals and electrical power.Or A transistor is a device that regulates current or voltage flow and acts as a switch or gate for electronic signals. Transistors consist of three layers of a semiconductor material, each capable of carrying a current. Bipolar Junction Transistor: The basic ...

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Kirchhoff’s voltage law definition problems and solutions

What is Kirchhoff’s Voltage Law? Kirchhoff’s voltage law is a fundamental circuit law that states that the algebraic sum of all the voltages around a closed path is zero or, in other words,the sum of the voltage drops equals the total source voltage. In an electric circuit, the voltages across the resistors(voltage drops) always have polarities opposite to the source ...

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Wheatstone bridge strain gauge

The Wheatstone Bridge: The Wheatstone bridge circuit is widely used to precisely measure resistance. Also, the bridge is used in conjunction with transducers to measure physical quantities such as strain,temperature , and pressure. Transducers are devices that sense a change in a physical parameter and convert that change into an electrical quantity such as a change in resistance. For example, a ...

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zener diode voltage regulator

what is Zener Diode? A major application for zener diodes is as a type of voltage regulator for providing stable reference voltages for use in power supplies,voltmeters,and other instruments. In this section, you will see how the zener maintains a nearly constant de voltage under the proper operating conditions. You will learn the conditions and illustrations for properly using the ...

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how do Diodes work

Diode: A diode is a two-terminal device formed by two doped regions of silicon separated by a pn junction. The most common category of diode, known as the general-purpose diode,is covered. Other names, such as rectifier diode or signal diode, depend on the particular type of application for which the diode was designed. You will learn how to use a ...

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What is modulation and demodulation

What is modulation? Until the process of superimposing a low frequency (long wave) voice information component on a high frequency (short wave) carrier signal was perfected,the most widely used form of communication was a system based on the transmission of a continuous wave (CW) signal.With this system,the signal was interrupted periodically (Morse code) to produce a coded message.The CW system ...

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Half wave rectifier experiment

What is Rectification? Conversion of alternating current into direct current is called rectification. Semiconductor diodes are extensively used for this purpose. There are two common types of rectification: Half wave rectification Full wave rectification Half Wave Rectification: An alternating voltage of Time period T is called input voltage is applied to a diode D which is connected in series with ...

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