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Photodiode applications with working and uses

What is Photodiode? The photo diode is the device which operates in reverse bias.The photo diode has small transparent window that allows light to strike the pn junction. Photodiode working We know that when reverse biased ,the rectifier diode has a very small leakage of current.The same is true for photodiode.The reverse biased current is produced by thermally generated electron ...

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Difference between astable monostable and bistable multivibrator

what is multivibrator? The name mutivibrator designates a group of the circuits widely applied for switching as shift registers or temporary memories and as square were timing oscillator or clocks. These circuits are basically closed loop feedback circuits operating with the feedback. Types of multivibrators There are three general types of multivibrators, which are: The astable or free running mutivibrator ...

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what is the difference between p type and n type semiconductors?

Difference between n type and p type semiconductors Depending on the type of doping material used ,extrinsic semiconductors can be further subdivided into two classes: N- type semiconductors P-type semiconductors N-type semiconductors This type of semiconductor is obtained when a pentavalent material like antimony (Sb) is added to pure germanium crystal.fig Each antimony atom forms covalent bonds with the surrounding ...

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what is difference between impedence and reactance?

Circuits with capacitors and inductors are more complicated than the resistive circuits we talked about earlier ,in that their behavior depends on frequency:A “voltage divider ” containing a capacitor or inductor will have a frequency dependent division ratio.In addition ,circuits containing these components (known collectively as reactive components),”corrupt” input waveforms such as square waves,as we just saw. However,both capacitors and ...

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Operational Amplifier (op-amp):types ,applications,modes & parameters

Early operational amplifiers (op-amps) were used primarily to perform mathematical operations such as addition, subtraction, integration, and differentiation—thus the term operational. These early devices were constructed with vacuum tubes and worked with high voltages. Today’s op-amps are linear integrated circuits (IC s) that  use relatively low dc supply voltages and are reliable and inexpensive. The standard operational amplifier (op-amp) symbol is shown in Figure. It has ...

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Mosfet:types ,n & p channel mosfet switch

What is Mosfet? The Mosfet (metal oxide semiconductor field-effect transistor) is another category of field-effect transistor. The MOSFET, different from the JFET, has no pn junction structure ; instead, the gate of the MOSFET is insulated from the channel by a silicon dioxide (SiO2) layer. The two basic types of MOSFETs are enhancement (E) and depletion (D). Of the two types, the enhancement MOSFET is more ...

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Bipolar junction transistor(BJT):Applications & characteristics

What is transistor? A transistor is a semiconductor device used to amplify or switch electronic signals and electrical power.Or A transistor is a device that regulates current or voltage flow and acts as a switch or gate for electronic signals. Transistors consist of three layers of a semiconductor material, each capable of carrying a current. Bipolar Junction Transistor the basic ...

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Wheatstone bridge circuit with formula and applications

The Wheatstone bridge circuit is widely used to precisely measure resistance. Also, the bridge is used in conjunction with transducers to measure physical quantities such as strain,temperature , and pressure. Transducers are devices that sense a change in a physical parameter and convert that change into an electrical quantity such as a change in resistance. For example, a strain gauge exhibits ...

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How to use Zener diode as voltage regulator?

what is Zener Diode? A major application for zener diodes is as a type of voltage regulator for providing stable reference voltages for use in power supplies,voltmeters,and other instruments. In this section, you will see how the zener maintains a nearly constant de voltage under the proper operating conditions. You will learn the conditions and illustrations for properly using the ...

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applications and uses of diodes in everyday life

What is a semiconductor diode? A diode is a two-terminal device formed by two doped regions of silicon separated by a pn junction. The most common category of diode, known as the general-purpose diode,is covered. Other names, such as rectifier diode or signal diode, depend on the particular type of application for which the diode was designed. You will learn ...

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