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Thermodynamics

Difference between gas turbine and steam turbine

Idea of gas turbine is very old one,its working principle is an advanced version of wind mill.To achieve efficient working of turbine,the movement of  gas is controlled and directed to blades.The air which is under pressure supplied to turbine by air compressor. In gas turbine initially the air is obtained from atmosphere and compressed in air compressor.The air which is ...

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Difference between impulse turbine and reaction turbine?

Comparison between Impulse turbine and a reaction turbine: Following are the some points of comparison between an impulse and reaction turbine. Impulse Turbines: In impulse turbine steam flows through nozzle and impinges in moving blades. The steam hits on the buckets with Kinetic energy. The steam pressure remains constant. Their relative velocity remains constant. Blades are symmetrical. Number of stages ...

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Difference between diesel and petrol engine

Diesel Engine: Diesel engine only draws air during suction stroke. The fuel is injected in the form of fine spray. Combustion of fuel takes place at constant pressure. The diesel engine are heavier and costlier. Starting of diesel engine is difficult due to high compression ratio. The maintenance cost of it is large. They are low speed engines. They are ...

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Efficiency of Carnot engine

Carnot Engine: Sadi Carnot in 1840 described an ideal engine using only isothermal and adiabatic processes.The carnot engine is free from friction and heat loses. Sadi showed that a heat engine operating in an ideal reversible cycle between two heat reservoirs at different temperatures would be the most efficient. Construction of carnot engine: It consists of following parts: A cylinder ...

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Intermolecular forces examples

What are intermolecular forces? Forces between molecules are of electromagnetic origin.All molecules contain electric charges in motion.These molecules are electrically neutral in the sense that the negative charge of the electron is equal and opposite charge to the positive charge of the nuclei.This does no mean,however that the molecules do not interact electrically.For example when two  molecules approach each other ...

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Specific Heat capacity formula

Specific Heat Capacity: Specific heat of a substance is the amount of heat required as raise the temperature of 1 kg mass of that substance through 1 K. Generally, when a body is heated, its temperature increases. Increase in the temperature of a body is found to be proportional to the amount of heat absorbed by it. It has also ...

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thermal Expansion coefficients of metals

Thermal expansion: Most of the substances solids, liquid and gases expand on heating and contract on cooling. Their thermal expansions and contractions are usually small and are not noticeable. However, these expansions and contractions are important in our daily life. The kinetic energy of the molecules of an object depends on its temperature. The molecules of a solid vibrate with ...

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First and second Law of thermodynamics

First law of thermodynamics: When heat is added to a system there is an increase in the internal energy due to the rise in temperature,an increase in pressure or change in the state.If at the same time,a substance is allowed to do work on its environment by expansion,the heat Q required will be the heat necessary to change the internal ...

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First Law of Thermodynamics

1st law of thermodynamics In any thermodynamic process, when heat Q is added to a system, this energy appears as an increase in the internal energy ΔU stored in the system plus the work W done by the system on its surroundings. when heat is added to a system there is an increase in the internal energy due to the rise ...

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Internal energy

what is internal energy? “The sum of all forms of molecular energies (kinetic and potential ) of a substance is termed as its internal energy.”In the study of thermodynamics,usually ideal gas is considered as a working substance. the molecules of an ideal gas are mere mass points which exert no force on one another. so the internal energy of an ...

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