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Thermodynamics

Carnot engine and carnot cycle with examples and problems

Carnot Engine Sadi Carnot in 1840 described an ideal engine using only isothermal and adiabatic processes.The carnot engine is free from friction and heat loses. Sadi showed that a heat engine operating in an ideal reversible cycle between two heat reservoirs at different temperatures would be the most efficient. Construction of carnot engine: It consists of following parts: A cylinder ...

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3 types of intermolecular forces with examples

What are intermolecular forces? Forces between molecules are of electromagnetic origin.All molecules contain electric charges in motion.These molecules are electrically neutral in the sense that the negative charge of the electron is equal and opposite charge to the positive charge of the nuclei.This does no mean,however that the molecules do not interact electrically.For example when two  molecules approach each other ...

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Difference between specific heat capacity and heat capacity

Specific Heat Capacity definition Specific heat of a substance is the amount of heat required as raise the temperature of 1 kg mass of that substance through 1 K. Specific heat formula Generally, when a body is heated, its temperature increases. Increase in the temperature of a body is found to be proportional to the amount of heat absorbed by ...

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thermal Expansion:Formula,examples and applications

Thermal expansion definition Most of the substances solids, liquid and gases expand on heating and contract on cooling. Their thermal expansions and contractions are usually small and are not noticeable. However, these expansions and contractions are important in our daily life. The kinetic energy of the molecules of an object depends on its temperature. The molecules of a solid vibrate ...

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First law of thermodynamics:Definition,examples and applications

First law of thermodynamics statement When heat is added to a system there is an increase in the internal energy due to the rise in temperature,an increase in pressure or change in the state.If at the same time,a substance is allowed to do work on its environment by expansion,the heat Q required will be the heat necessary to change the ...

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Second law of thermodynamics:Statement,equation,examples and applications

State the Second law of thermodynamics First law of thermodynamics tells us that heat energy can be converted into equivalent amount of work, but it is silent about the conditions under which this conversion takes place. The second law is concerned with the circumstances in which heat can be converted into work and direction of flow of heat. Before initiating ...

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Internal energy formula physics and examples

what is internal energy? “The sum of all forms of molecular energies (kinetic and potential ) of a substance is termed as its internal energy.”In the study of thermodynamics,usually ideal gas is considered as a working substance. the molecules of an ideal gas are mere mass points which exert no force on one another. so the internal energy of an ...

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Difference between evaporation and boiling with examples

Evaporation and boiling If you are moping the floor in home you will observe that the wet floor or surface of floor becomes dry very early after a while.We can say that thin layer of water on floor surface has evaporated.Evaporation is the change the change of state of liquid into vapours. Evaporation is different from boiling besides this in ...

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radiation heat transfer:definition and examples

Radiation heat transfer is the mode of transfer of heat from one place to another in the form of waves called electromagnetic waves.Convection and conduction require the presence of matter as a medium to carry the heat from the hotter to the colder region. But a third type of heat transfer occurs without any medium at all. All life on Earth ...

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convection heat transfer : Definition,Examples and Applications

Radiation of heat Conduction of heat Convection of heat definition “Transfer of heat by actual movement of molecules from hot place to a cold place is known as convection.” Liquids and gases are poor conductors of heat.However,heat is transfer through  fluids(liquids or gases)easily by another method called convection. Why a balloon inflated with hot shown in figure .rise up?a liquid ...

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