The basic difference between stress and strain is that stress is the deforming force per unit area. Its unit is the same as pressure which is N/m²,While strain is the apparent change in the shape, volume or length of object caused due to stress is called strain. Strain has no unit.
It is defined as the force applied to the unit area to produce a change in the shape, volume or length of a body. Mathematically it is expressed as:
The SI unit of stress (σ) is newton per square meter (Nm-2), which is given the name pascal (pa).
Types of stress
Stress may cause a change in length, volume, and shape.
When stress changes the length, it is called tensile stress.
When stress changes its volume, it is called compressional stress.
When stress changes the shape, it is called shear stress.
The strain is a measure of the deformation of a solid when stress is applied to it. In the case of deformation in one-dimensional strain is defined as the fractional change in length. If Δl is the change in length and l is the original length, then strain is given by:
Types of strain
Since strain is the ratio of lengths, it is dimensionless, and therefore, has no units.
If the strain is ε is due to tensile stress σ, it is called tensile strain.
If the strain is produced as a result of compressive stress, it is called compressive strain.
When the applied stress changes the volume, the change in volume per unit volume is known as volumetric strain.
When the opposite faces of a rigid cube are subjected to shear stress.
Stress Vs Strain
|Stress is the restoring or deforming force per unit area.||The strain is the change in shape per original shape.|
|Its formula is σ = F/A||Its formula is ∈ = ΔL/L|
|Its unit is N/m²||It has no unit|